Poor grazing and cold weather make winter a particularly challenging for poor doers (and their owners!). If you’re worried about how to make sure your horse gains or maintains weight safely this winter the following tip and advice might help…
The aim here is to prevent weight loss before it starts. Provided they are otherwise healthy and not laminitic, going into winter at a body condition score (BCS) of 6/9 may help poor doers buffer excess weight loss.
Identifying the cause of weight loss
In many cases weight loss is simply the result of under-supplying calories. Check whether you are feeding the recommended amount of your current feed as a simple increase alongside ad lib hay/ haylage may be all that is needed. However seek veterinary advice if your horse’s weight loss is sudden, severe or unexpected. Weight loss can also be a sign of poor teeth so have your horse’s teeth checked regularly by your vet or an equine dental technician.
The importance of forage
Forage is essential for digestive health and accounts for a significant portion of daily calorie intake. Feed good quality hay or haylage ad lib, ideally in the field as well as the stable. Hay replacers are essential for horses and ponies unable to manage hay/ haylage.
Calories is a term we all associate with bodyweight but have you ever noticed the word ‘calories’ doesn’t feature in the nutrient table on the back of your feed bag? Calories is a measurement of energy but in the UK, energy in equine feeds is measured in ‘megajoules of digestible energy’ (MJ DE) as opposed to kilocalories in human food. If your horse is prone to excitability, choosing a high energy feed can seem daunting but in the large majority of cases, it is the source of energy that you feed rather than the amount that may increase the risk of feed related excitability (cereal starch is the most common culprit!).
The benefits of fibre and oil
Choosing fibre based feeds that are low in starch and sugar helps to support digestive health and reduce the risk of unwanted excitability. Oil is approximately 2.5 times higher in energy compared to cereals and starch free, making feeds high in oil a sympathetic alternative to mixes and other cereal based feeds. Tolerance to cereal starch varies between individuals but if your horse is prone to excitability, start by choosing feeds containing less than 15% starch (or less than 10% for very sensitive horses). High fibre, low starch feeds are also ideal for horses prone to conditions such as laminitis, colic, gastric ulcers and tying up but in these cases, seek advice from a nutritionist before making any changes in diet.
Sugar beet has been a winter staple for generations. It’s an excellent source of highly digestible fibre, low in starch and gram for gram, contains a similar level of calories to a conditioning feed. However, the increase in volume after soaking can make it easy to under-estimate how much you are actually feeding. In fact, a scoop of ‘Horse and Pony Cubes’ may be 4 times higher in calories than a scoop of soaked sugar beet! Always weigh sugar beet and other soaked feeds before soaking.
Balancers are not ‘conditioning’
Due to the low feeding rate, all balancers (except stud balancers) provide a negligible level of calories. Feeding the recommended amount of an appropriate compound feed, fibre or mash containing added vitamins and minerals is often the most convenient and cost effective way of providing additional calories and a balanced diet. However if you are feeding ‘straights’ such as sugar beet, alfalfa and oil instead, a balancer is a great way to provide vitamins, minerals and additional protein.
Feed small meals
Feeding large meals can increase the risk of conditions such as colic and tying up and in some cases, may even contribute to weight loss. Feed no more than 2kg per meal in total for horses and less for ponies.
Ensuring good doers are appropriately rugged helps to ensure they don’t waste valuable energy keeping warm. However rugs can hide a multitude of sins, so remove them regularly to assess your horse’s body condition and check for signs of rubbing.
For more advice on feeding your poor doer this winter contact the SPILLERS Care-Line on 01908 226626 or email@example.com